Addiction is a brain disease that one out of every 12 American adults suffered from in 2014, according to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). There are many reasons why a person may turn to drugs or alcohol initially, including using these mind-altering substances as a coping mechanism for stress, difficult emotions, physical ailments, and other issues. Drugs and alcohol can provide a temporary respite from reality and everyday life. They can enhance pleasure and decrease inhibitions and anxiety.
Coping mechanisms are compulsions, or habits formed over time, that serve to help a person manage with particular situations or stress levels. Not all coping mechanisms are maladaptive or destructive; however, addiction is both.
Addiction can take many forms, from addictions to drugs and/or alcohol to addictions to shopping, gambling, sex, internet use, eating, and other behaviors. Addiction is defined by the American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) as a brain disease indicated by cravings, an inability to abstain from the behavior or substance, dysfunctional emotional responses, and a loss of behavioral control. Compulsive behaviors are often unconscious and perhaps mindless choices.
A coping mechanism is a method of dealing with unhappiness, stress, or other potential issues. It is whatever a person does to handle negative emotions or problems. Addiction can be an unhealthy coping mechanism.
Psychoactive substances interact in the brain, disrupting the normal transmission, production, and reabsorption of its chemical messengers. Dopamine and serotonin (neurotransmitters involved in feelings of pleasure, motivation, memory functions, reward processing, movement, and learning abilities) are often increased, for example. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a sort of natural tranquilizer, or its virtual opposite, norepinephrine (adrenaline), may also be stimulated by drug abuse.
Functions of the central nervous system (CNS), like heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and respiration rates, are also impacted by drug and alcohol use. Stimulant drugs increase CNS activity while depressants slow it down. With repeated drug or alcohol use, the brain becomes dependent on the substances to remain in balance, and difficult withdrawal symptoms occur when the substance wears off. Drug use may then become compulsive, and individuals may lose their ability to control how much and how often they use them.
In similar fashion, other compulsive behaviors, such as binge eating, shopping, gambling, sex, or playing video games, can also increase some of the pleasure-inducing brain chemicals that drugs and alcohol do and lead to addiction with prolonged repetition. These behavioral addictions can then become tools for managing unhappiness and stress, and may also be used as coping mechanisms. Cravings for the behavior can be intense, and withdrawal can be difficult, meaning that stress levels and unhappiness will increase if these compulsive behaviors are not repeated.
Addiction interferes with normal life, disrupting interpersonal relationships, home life, and work and school attendance and production, leading to financial strain and potential legal and criminal difficulties. Overall, this contributes to significant emotional and physical problems for the person. Addiction as a coping mechanism is harmful to the brain, body, and spirit; it also damages family, friends, and society as a whole.
Addiction can become a coping mechanism for both physical and emotional issues. The withdrawal symptoms that accompany drug dependence can actually make mental illness symptoms like depression, anxiety, and sleep difficulties worse, however. In the long run, substance abuse only serves to exacerbate mental health issues and complicate treatment.
Stress and exposure to trauma are closely linked with drug abuse and addiction as well. When someone feels stressed, changes are made in the brain, and the CNS often responds with a “fight-or-flight” reaction. This can enhance survival and be healthy in many cases; however, chronic and high levels of stress on a regular basis can be detrimental to a person’s health and increase their vulnerability to addiction and relapse, the journal Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences warns. High stress levels and hyperactive nerve activity can lead a person to want to use drugs or alcohol, or to engage in another compulsive behavior, in order to cope. Addiction can then become a coping mechanism for stress. Whenever stress begins to increase, the compulsive behavior (e.g., drug abuse, gambling, eating, sex, internet use, etc.) is repeated in an attempt to alleviate the uncomfortable feelings. The compulsion may offer temporary relief or an escape, but this will be short-lived in the case of addiction, and cravings to repeat the behavior will soon reoccur.
As addiction is considered a brain disease with behavioral implications, professional help is optimal in helping to restore a healthy balance to the brain and create new and healthier coping mechanisms. Addiction treatment programs use behavioral therapies, counseling, supportive measures, and often medications to regulate brain chemistry and build new and improved habits and life skills for recovery. Stress and anger management, communication skills, relapse prevention tools, and new coping mechanisms are learned.
During addiction treatment, individuals are taught methods for managing cravings and handling potential triggers that may arise. There are many healthy alternatives to using addiction as a coping mechanism, and these alternatives can be used in recovery to minimize relapse and keep moving forward. They include:
Remaining vigilant, patient, and committed to recovery is important. Continue to attend support group meetings, counseling, and therapy sessions, and participate in alumni programs as these outlets foster healthy habits. The coping mechanisms taught in an addiction treatment program can become second nature over time, proving essential to a sustained recovery.