Kratom is a “drug of concern” that is not federally controlled by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). With narcotic effects similar to morphine when abused in high doses, as the New York State Office on Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Services (NY OASAS) reports, kratom may be addictive.
In lower doses, kratom is a stimulant drug that may increase focus, attention, energy, and alertness while in higher doses, it may produce a pleasant and mellow “high” similar to opioid drugs.
Calls to poison control centers regarding adverse effects of kratom may be increasing, potentially indicating rising popularity of the drug, as is the case in the Twin Cities, Fox 9 publishes. The potential dangers of Kratom are not fully understood. On its own, overdose is rare but when combined with alcohol or drugs, dangerous side effects can occur. While technically “legal” in most states across America, it is still a concerning drug with a potential for abuse, dependency, and even addiction. Three dangers of kratom include:
1. Kratom AddictionKratom dependence may be formed when the drug is abused regularly for a period of time. Changes are made to the pathways and circuitry of the brain involved with how a person feels happy due to the way the drug fills up opioid receptors along the central nervous system and floods the brain with some of the chemical messengers related to pleasure and mood. When the drug is removed, or leaves the system, after dependence has set in, drug withdrawal is often the result. The DEA reports that kratom withdrawal includes side effects, such as muscle and bone pain, tremors, nausea, fatigue, runny nose, mood swings, and hostility. A more serious withdrawal syndrome may include hallucinations, delusions, and confusion.
2. Lack of Regulation
Up until 2014, kratom was marketed in the United States as a dietary or nutritional supplement. Due to numerous reports of health concerns and toxicity, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has since banned its import. Today, it may be sold in powder or tablet form under the radar in tobacco stores or head shops where it is labeled as “incense,” purchased online, or ordered in bars where it is mixed with drinks and sold as “ketum,” The New York Times publishes.
Since it is not considered a controlled substance, it is unregulated and not standardized. As it is often sold illegally, the drug may not be what it is marketed as. There are no official drug labels for kratom in America to warn individuals of the dangers or possible side effects of taking it. The drug may be cut or mixed with other substances that may be potentially toxic or hazardous on their own, and a buyer may never know the level of purity or potency of kratom.
3. Possible Negative Drug Interactions
A popular drink with young Muslims in southern Thailand, 4×100 is a mixture of the plant-based kratom and either a codeine-based cough syrup or caffeinated beverage that produces an effect similar to being drunk from alcohol, the DEA reports. Mixing kratom with other psychoactive substances can be highly dangerous, as they may have negative interactions with each other. Seizures have been reported with kratom abuse when taken along with other drugs, the Nursing Show publishes.
Worsening depression and possible fatal drug interactions between kratom and other opioids, like prescription-based hydrocodone or morphine, have been reported by The New York Times. When taking more than one mind-altering substance at a time, each may exacerbate the potential hazards, side effects, and risk factors associated with each substance, and this mixing heightens the probability for drug dependence, addiction, or a life-threatening drug overdose. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that almost 50,000 people died in the United States from a drug overdose in 2014, making overdose the leading cause of injury death in the nation.
Kratom use and abuse comes with various dangers. If an abuse problem exists, comprehensive drug abuse treatment can help.