Individuals performing an intervention attempt to point out the person’s destructive behavior associated with substance abuse. By pointing out this destructive behavior and how it affects the individual’s friends and family, it is hoped that the person will see the need to engage in some form of treatment and agree to participate in a treatment program.
There are several different types of interventions. First, interventions can be classified by the number and type of people actually performing the intervention:
A simple intervention occurs when one individual, most often a friend or family member, confronts the person with the substance use disorder in some kind of neutral environment. The person performing the intervention will have better success if prior to actually doing the intervention, a professional is consulted. A professional interventionist (people who have training in performing interventions and how to organize them), a therapist or substance abuse counselor, or another person who has experience/expertise in substance abuse can be consulted for advice. The person performing the intervention can discuss concerns with this individual and develop a plan. The goal is to confront the person with the substance use disorder in a nonthreatening manner, point out what the person organizing the intervention observes regarding the negative aspects of the subject’s substance abuse, express concerns for the subject, and suggest that the subject of the intervention seek treatment.
A classic intervention occurs when a group of individuals, again mostly family and friends, who are concerned about the substance abuse issues of the subject get together and confront the individual in a non-confrontational manner to explain how that person’s substance abuse affects them and the need for that person to seek treatment. Typically, there is a group meeting prior to the intervention without the subject present to plan the event and to allow the members to define their goals and functions. In the planning session, team members develop different courses of action to address the potential reactions of the subject (e.g., if the subject denies using substances, gets defensive, etc.). During this planning meeting, an addiction professional or professional interventionist may be present to make sure the goals of the intervention are met. Often, the addiction professional or interventionist attends the actual intervention to run the event.
Crisis interventions occur more or less on the spot when the subject’s substance abuse has resulted in some potentially threatening or dangerous situation. The individuals who are present during this time immediately confront the person with the substance use disorder and attempt to get the person to commit to a treatment program.Interventions can also follow a specific approach. These approaches require some intensive planning and organization. On the other hand, crisis interventions, because of their very nature, are typically not planned. They may, or may not, involve the use of an interventionist who is contacted at the last minute.
The following approaches can be utilized in classic and family systems interventions, and to a lesser extent in a simple intervention format:
The Love First approach is a softer version of the tough love form of intervention. It too is a classic intervention model. Members meet prior to the intervention with a therapist or interventionist to develop the plan for the intervention. Depending on the situation, there may be more than one such meeting. Each member of the team is instructed to write a letter to be read in the intervention. There are three components to each letter:
The team makes a proposal to the subject to seek treatment. If the person agrees, the intervention is a success. If not, the team resorts to a backup plan that is developed in the planning meetings. This plan consists of a number of consequences that will occur if the subject does not seek treatment. If the person still refuses to seek treatment, it is understood that the team will implement whatever consequences have been explained. There is very little empirical evidence to suggest that this approach is more effective than the tough love approach.
The Johnson Model of intervention consists of the usual team of family and friends and a therapist or interventionist. The team has an initial planning session where they decide what it is they want to explain to the subject, and the interventionist helps the team develop these goals. This is a nonconfrontational approach that focuses just on the facts regarding the individual’s substance use, the concern that the team members have for the subject, and real evidence (this can also include statistical information from research studies) as to how the individual’s substance abuse is detrimental. There is no expression of anger or blame allowed. The team also decides on a minimum of three treatment options to present to the subject. These treatment options are most effective if they cover a range of different types of treatment as opposed to three separate types of the same treatment. The research indicates that when a Johnson Model intervention is implemented, it can be successful; however, the majority of individuals who attempt this approach actually did not fully complete the intervention.
The Albany-Rochester Interventional Sequence for Engagement (ARISE) model is a complex model of intervention that has three levels to its approach. It was developed as a functional alternative to the Johnson Model.
Level I begins when a prospective member of the intervention team contacts a certified interventionist to help organize an intervention. The interventionist organizes an initial meeting with all members of the intervention team, and the subject of the intervention is encouraged to join the organizational meetings.
Level II occurs when the actual intervention meetings take place. In this model, there can be more than one intervention meeting. The subject is encouraged to get help at these meetings and often enters treatment.
In level III, the subject is presented with serious consequences if treatment is not chosen. This is a last-resort meeting.
The ARISE model has empirical research to support its use and is the model developed by the Association of Interventionist Specialists to get individuals with substance use disorders into treatment.
Because of their very nature, interventions need to be performed by people who are close to the subject. The intervention will not be as effective if the group consists of many acquaintances who have only superficial relationships with the person. Effective interventions are typically performed by individuals who share a strong bond with the subject and care for that person. This brings the intervention to a close and intimate level that has meaning for both the people performing the intervention and for the subject of the intervention. Typically, close family members, close friends, and close coworkers are involved in the intervention. Friends or acquaintances of family members and others who do not have a solid relationship with the subject should not attend.
In addition to including only individuals close to the subject, the chances of performing a smooth and successful intervention will increase if a professional interventionist is present.
Interventions should be performed when it is clear that the substance use of the subject is leading to a number of negative consequences for that person and the person’s family members and close friends. Many times, individuals with substance use disorders do not conceptualize the ramifications of the substance use and engage in a number of subjective explanations and perceptions that continue to foster the substance abuse. The goal of the intervention is to make the person aware of the negative ramifications of the substance abuse and encourage the person to engage in treatment.